As is common among homes before the industrial era, no Ibizan farm is the same as the other, although all have certain features in common that define them as their own architecture like here at Can Toni Xumeu. These general features of the original estate are the following:
Materials. Built by the peasant, it is essentially made of materials found in the same place: dry stone, sabina beams for the roof, sand, clay and marine plants.
Implantation. The house is ideally located at a high point of the slope of a hill, with rocks as natural foundations, taking advantage of the topographic features and the slope without overflowing on the favorable lands for cultivation.
Orientation. The entrance is almost always oriented towards the south, leaving the mountain behind, protected from the north winds and thus perceiving the sunlight continuously.
Absence of ornaments. It is shown as an austere dwelling, practical and functional, surrounded by fields and totally adapted to the needs of the time in which it was built. Later decorative elements such as arches and wooden balustrades with carved shapes would arrive, but they are relatively discreet and are concentrated only in the main façade.
Protagonism of the facades. The treatment of the facades reveals a clear hierarchy between the main façade, bleached, and the other facades, simply plastered or exposed stone. Similarly, the few decorative elements that can be found in the original estate are concentrated in the main facade.
The walls are wide, almost one meter, and are composed of dry stone and mortar. Most of the walls are whitewashed in both houses and churches, although sometimes they appear naked showing the stone. The walls that enclose the building can have a shape of steep walls (inclination and greater thickness in the lower part) to reinforce the structure and comply with the defensive function.
The windows are small and formerly had no glass, narrower on the outside than on the inside, thus emulating a fortress. The continuous assaults and looting of vandals and pirates for centuries forced this double function of the farms. Another function of the windows was to protect the interior of the sun in summer, thus contributing to the isolation of the house.
The roofs are flat and originally consisted of three layers: one of sabina wood, one of ash and marine plants (oceanic Posidonia) and a layer of clay, which acted as insulation and waterproof. On the roofs different fruits of the field were sunk and serve to collect the rainwater that is channeled through a cistern.